Thursday, January 4, 2018

Francis L Hawks's "Battle of the Alamance and War of the Regulation'"

[Following is the verbatim transcript of Francis L Hawks's essay 'Battle of the Alamance and War of the Regulation' in Revolutionary History of North Carolina in Three Lectures by Francis L Hawks, David L. Swain, and Wm A. Graham, published by Putnam in New York and by William D. Cooke in Raleigh. This essay appears on pages 13 through 41.]

It was in the year 1764, that William Tryon, who had been trained to arms, became the Governor of the province of North Carolina. It was in the same year that the British parliament asserted their right to tax the American colonies, without their consent; and early in 1765, was passed the memorable Stamp Act. From one end of the province to the other, meetings of the people were held, and with an unanimity never equaled before or since, they declared that they would not submit to the law. In 1766, a British sloop-of-war brought over the stamped paper, when Tryon found out the character of the people with whom he had to deal. They took up arms: would not permit a sheet of the paper to be landed, and compelled the stamp distributor to take an oath that he would not execute his odious office. The amazed Governor sought to conciliate the colonists by an ostentatious parade of hospitality. He caused an ox to be roasted whole, and several barrels of beer to be provided as a feast for the common people: they attended on his invitation, but it was to throw the untasted meal into the river, and empty the beer on the ground. He writhed under the insult, and from this hour sought to annoy and distress the colony. Fond of military display, and possibly with the view of impressing with salutary awe the hardy men of the West, he marched from the seacoast with a military company, in a time of profound peace, to run, in person, the dividing line between the Western settlements, and the hunting grounds of the Cherokee Indians. Hundreds of men near the spot could have performed the work, at little cost, quite as well as he could; but his love of military display would not thereby have found gratification; so the colony was saddled with the needless expense, and His Excellency returned with a new title; for the Cherokees called him " The Great Wolf of North Carolina ": The name seems to have been prophetic of the future, for a "wolf" he proved. His next exploit was to erect and furnish in one of the towns on the seaboard at a cost of nearly $100,000, (an immense sum for the colony at that day,) a palace which in splendor had no equal either in North or South America. There was an iniquity, which Tryon found' existing when he came to the government, (for it had been established by his predecessor,) and he not only continued, but increased it. It was the extortion of illegal fees and taxes by the officials of the government. The law had named the fees to be paid to clerks of courts, recorders of deeds, entry takers, and surveyors of land, and lawyers for certain specified services. The taxes also were fixed by law. But these several officers had been for years in the habit of demanding two or three times as much as they were entitled to; and many of the sheriffs, wherever it could be done, exacted about double the amount of lawful taxes. To this state of things, add the fact that all offices were conferred by the Governor on his personal favorites, and the additional circumstance that the limited use of the press at that day rendered it very difficult for the people to read the laws for themselves, and the reader will have before him the causes which led to the "Regulation War" of North Carolina.

When the oppressions arising from this state of things became no longer endurable, redress was sought at first in a quiet way, by a resort to the courts of law. The officers were indicted, and found guilty, but the punishment was the nominal one of a penny fine. In short, all resorts to the tribunals of the country ended in a mockery of justice. The people met and remonstrated in vain. In a moment of apprehension, Tryon would lull them, by promises which he never meant to fulfil, into a hope of redress.— Scarcely would they disperse before some gross act of official imposition, or the seizure and imprisonment of some of the most conspicuous among them would rouse the people, who to the number of thousands, and with arms in their hands, marched to the rescue of their companions. Their approach would create a panic, and the prisoners would be set at liberty. The people would again disperse, for there never lived a set of men who would more quietly or cheerfully have submitted to the existing laws if righteously administered. The histories of the day have done them great injustice: eagerly catching at acts of lawless violence, perpetrated by a few, who were not of the Regulators, but who gladly sheltered themselves in their irregularities by assuming the name; those who have written of that time, have denounced this whole body of men as composed of a factious and turbulent mob who causelessly disturbed the public tranquillity. Nothing could be more untrue. Their assemblages were orderly, and some evidence of the temper and characters of the men may be gathered from the fact, that from these meetings, by a law of their own, they vigorously excluded all intoxicating drinks. We shall see presently that many among them were deeply conscientious and christian men. I have already mentioned that the public press of that day had an influence but limited in extent. As far as it went, however, they sought peaceably to use it in setting forth their grievances. And here, we digress for a moment to say a word of their publications; for they furnish strong and true touches, in the picture of those times. The productions, sometimes circulated in MSS., sometimes in print, betray no proofs of high scholarship, and none of the elegance of polished writing; for they were literally what they professed to be, the work of the people, and there is a truthful earnestness in some of them, more effective than the skill of the mere rhetorician. Sometimes they are grave, sometimes satirical; sometimes a ballad and sometimes a narrative. The rough poet of the period was Rednap Howell, who taught the very children to sing in doggerell, the infamy of" the proud officials who were trampling on them. He singled out especially two, by name Fanning and Frohawk, and a single specimen from many similar ones will suffice:

"Says Frohawk to Fanning, to tell the plain truth; When I came to this country, I was but a youth, My father sent for me: I wa'nt worth a cross, And then my first study was stealing a horse. I quickly got credit; and then ran away, And hav'nt paid for him to this very day.

"Says Fanning to Frohawk, 'tis folly to lie, I rode an old mare that was blind of one eye; Five shillings in money I had in my purse, My coat it was patched, but not much the worse; But now we're got rich, and it's very well known, That we'll do very well; if they'll let ws alone."

Sometimes a grave irony was made the medium of instruction; and with this is connected a little anecdote in our literary history. I have in my possession a small volume put forth by Harmon Husband, a quaker of that day, and one of those who used his pen most freely; among its contents are two sermons on the nature of asses; the one founded on the text, "Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens—And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and .became a servant to tribute':" the other founded on the scripture narrative of Balaam and his ass. They have in them many hard hits both against tyrannical rulers and those who submit to them; and what adds to their interest is, that Benjamin Franklin has been supposed to have borne some part in their production, as he unquestionably did in other articles which Husband published. The communication between Dr. Franklin and Husband arose, according to the tradition of the country, as related by Carruthers, from the fact of some distant relationship or family connection between them; for Husband was by birth a Pennsylvanian, or of Pennsylvania parents who had removed to North Carolina. At any rate a communication was kept up between them". At the time of which we speak, the sagacious mind of Franklin probably saw that the coming collision with the mother country, was a mere question of time, the result was inevitable. The western part of North Carolina, at that day, derived its supply of necessary commodities for the few shops established in it, from Philadelphia; and twice in each year the traders resorted to that city to purchase their goods. Among these individuals was one, a prudent and discreet man, who always carried verbal messages, to and fro, between Franklin and Husband, but from the danger of detection, no letters were ever sent. Franklin was accustomed however, to send printed pamphlets to Husband, which the latter caused to be either copied or printed and distributed among the people. From one of these entitled "State Affairs," from Franklin's own pen, it has been believed Husband concocted these sermons on asses. This however is a mistake; there is a volume entitled "Sermons to Asses," the production of an English clergyman of republican tendencies, whose name was Murray. This was reprinted in Boston, but neither the English nor American edition bore the author's name on the title page. In New England many attributed the work to Franklin. On a comparison of this work with the publication of Husband, it will be seen that the "Sermons to Asses" at the end of his book, are, with slight alterations to adapt them to the latitude of North Carolina, copied from Murray. Will the reader allow us to detain him with some extracts from these productions. They indicate great shrewdness and good sense, and I fear are not without applicability in some respects to our own times f at any rate they will furnish him with materials from which his own mind will form a better picture of the times than I can delineate:

[I have put these extensive quotes from Husband in italics.-MHC]

"Jacob is the first that is mentioned in scripture who preached to asses; but many have been thus employed since his time. This is a, most shameful monosyllable, when applyed to reasonable creatures;—men endowed with reason and understanding to degenerate so basely; what a falling off is here! 

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What does these burdens mean, which Issachar couched down so decently under? Civil and religious slavery no doubt. Strange, that such a number of Rational creatures should bear two such insupportable burdens !—Ah, I bad forgot that they were asses ;—for, to be sure, no people of any rational spirit could endure such grievous bondage. 

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A strong ass, in the original word, denotes strength, but implies leanness.—And truly all those who submit to slavery are poor. We have not a word of his motion;— he was strong, but not active to assert his rights and privileges. Rest was pleasant to him ;—and thus it happens now, we sit still at ease, trusting to the good of the land, and concluding, every one, I can live out my time in peace and quiet;— forgetting our posterity, and mourning not for the afflictions of Joseph. 

When men thus degenerate, they will always find some ready to fix burdens on them; for slavery don't come in a day, it is a work of time to make men perfect Slaves. 

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Issachar stooped down ; he well deserved a heavy burden for his meanness ;<—it. is a just reward ;—for such as do not value freedom and liberty, before a little present ease, deserve to be slaves.—They are blessings too valuable to be Enjoyed without care and industry to maintain them. 

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But Italy and Spain are not the only places where people believe absurdities;—in a land where freedom has been the privilege and boast of every subject, we may, perhaps, find plenty of asses.—You will say, not m America, a.land renowned for all sorts of liberty ;—A nation to which there is none equal upon the face of the earth, as we know of. In some provinces in America this may have been the case;—but we, in North-Carolina, are not free;—yet to the king, or to the plan of our constitution, nothing can be laid that tends to effect our Liberties.—But we have sold that liberty which our ancestors left us by this constitution to such men as have not the least pretensions to rule over us. 

Are we free while our laws are disapproved of by nine-tenths of us ?—Are we free while it is out of our power to obtain one law that is our choice ?—Take out our oppressors themselves, and many of our laws are disagreeable to the inhabitants to a mac: And worse than all this, for bad as our laws are, the practice of them is worse, and our oppressors have got out of reach of them. 

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Ye who, like Issachar, for the love of ease, or the gratification of some sordid passion, have sold your liberties, and submit to burdens, as unnatural as they are unreasonable,—your character is drawn, in the text, to that of asses.—And worse than asses you are, who thus give up the cause of your country either to civil or religious dominators. 

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Issachar, I wish thy children had all died in the first generation;—for thy offspring is too numerous; they are in church and state; whoever will attend any place of concourse will find many of thy descendants so stupid, that they every day bring themselves under burdens they might easily prevent. 

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I shall now consider some grievous oppressions that we labor under. 

First, The Publick taxes is an unequal burden on the poor of this province, by reason the poorest man is taxed as high as the richest. Allowing the taxes to be all necessary, yet there ought to be some regard had to the strength of the beast; for all asses are not equally strong. We ought to be taxed according to the profits of each man's estate. And as we have no trade to circulate money, this tax ought to be paid in country produce. There would be men enough to be found to fill all posts of office for a salary paid in produce, as any man can afford to officiate in an office for country produce as well as to farm or follow any other calling, the chief of which bring in nothing else. 

This is a grievous burden on the poor, as matters have been carried on, for money is not to be had: And when a poor man's goods is distrained, the practice has been to take double, treble, yea ten times the value has sometimes been taken away.—And if they complain, they are not heard; if they resist, they are belabored like asses. 

Merciful Lord, would any people rise in mobs to disturb a peaceable nation if they could help it! "Who is more ready than the poor to venture their lives in time of war for the safety of the nation? nay it is pinching hunger and cold, brought on them by abuse of officers, that is the cause. 

A few men may rise in a riot without a Cause; and disaffected lords and great men may have such ambitious vie s, encouraged by some enemy prince ;—but for the generality of the poor of a Province to rise, there must be some cause; I dare say there always is a grievous cause. 

Neither is it any reflection on the king, to say, the poor are oppressed; for he don't make our laws:—'Tis the subjects themselves, like the fish, devouring one another, with this difference, we are devoured by law. 

The narrow limits of our inferior court's jurisdiction, and likewise of a single magistrate, is a grievous burden on both poor and rich; and more so as we are obliged to fee lawyers; and in their demands they have got above the law, and have monopolized the whole power of the courts into their own hands. Our burdens exceeds Issachar's; for truly we may be said to labour under three,—the lawyers use us as we do our stocks, they kill one here and there, or pluck us well, and then let us run a while to feather again. 

We must make these men subject to the laws, or they will enslave the whole community.—General and private musters are also an unnecessary burden, especially in our large counties, the out sides of which have to ride from thirty to fifty miles; and the out sides of a county contain more than the heart. Going to one of these musters generally costs a whole week's labour.—And on the whole, costs the counties at least a Thousand Pounds each. A general muster is one week's loss in a year, which is one-fiftieth part of the year.—Four private musters one week more, which is one twenty-fifth part.—Working on the roads and attending courts, will soon reduce it to one-twelfth part of our time.—And of what service is all this cost attending the militia law? It serves to bring custom to a few Ord inary-Keepers, and for a day of gaiety and feasting to a few individuals, who have been vain enough sometimes to publish such a day's diversion in distant Gazettes. 

With what indignation must a poor ass read such a paragraph of such vain boasting of such a crowd of poor asses, faint with hunger, cold and thirst, laying out two or three nights by a fire in the woods, to perform this journey; destitute even of a great coat or a blanket; and of no use under the sun but to make a show o'f grandeur to a few who, perhaps, are the most unworthy in the county. 

This excess has not been practised perhaps in many counties ;—But it is not amiss to check it, lest it should grow, and you be tied neck and heels for the least affront, and made to ride the wooden mare.—It is enough to make a freeman's flesh creep to road this law ;—which might be more tolerable, were the people allowed to choose their own officers.—It would be needless to mention every circumstance of oppression in this which is yet but the civil burden. 

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I shall now proceed to the 3d head, to consider ot a method to remove these burdens. 

When the time of an election comes on, and those men of the world, who rule by wealth, and whose business it is to corrupt their fellow subjects, and cheat them by flattery and corruption; out of their liberty come to ask your votes,—do you despise their offers, and say to them, Your money perish with you. 

Can it be supposed that such men will take care of your interest who begin with debauching your morals, and ruining your souls by drunkenness?—Will that man have the least regard for your civil interest and property who first attempts to ruin your virtue 2—What opinion must they have of such people, who, for a few days riot and gluttony will sell their liberties, but that they are asses, that want to be watered? 

While men are thus slaves to their lusts, they will never be free. Men that do so easily sell their souls will not value their country.—Where there is no virtue, there can be no liberty;— it is all licentiousness. What Issachars are such People who gives their votes for a man who neither fears God nor loves mankind! who, by the very method that he pursues to obtain his election, deserves to forfeit the favour and esteem of all lovers of virtue and honesty. Whom can they blame for their oppression but themselves; their own hands do make the fetters by which they are bound. Those who lay out so much money upon an election, has it in their view to make you pay for it in the round. 

Secondly, Forever despise that man who has betray'd the liberty of his constituants; this will lay a restraint upon the venal disposition of such as Incline to sell their country for Preferment. It would be a check to hinder them from going into the schemes of a Governor.—Never send those who depend on favour for a living, or on the perplexity of the laws, nor any who have ever discovered a want of good principles. 

North-Carolinians, if you remain under these burdens, it must be your own faults ;—you will stand recorded for asses to all generations if you do not assert your privileges before it is too late to recover them.

It is not disloyalty, nor injurious, to give Instructions to the candidates you choose, and take their solemn promise and obligation, that they will follow those instructions. This is far more noble than rioting a few day3 in drunkenness. Assembly men are your servants, and it is but reasonable they be made accountable to you for their conduct. 

Mark any clerk, lawyer or Scotch merchant, or any sett of men, who are connected with certain companies, callings and combinations, whose interests jar with the interest of the publick good.—And when they come to solicit you with invi'ations to entertainments, ifcc. shun them as you would the pestilence. Send a man who is the choice of the country, and not one who sets up himself, and is the choice of a party; whose interest clashes with the good of the publick. Send a christian, or a man whom you think in your consciences is a real honest good man ;—for this is the christian, let his belief, as to creeds and opinions be what it will. 

Beware of being corrupted by flattery, for such men study the art of managing those springs of action within us, and will easily make us slaves by our own consent,—There is move passions than one that these men work upon; there is drunkenness, love of honour, flattery of great men, love of interest, preferment, or some worldly advantage.—They, by taking hold of these springs within us, insensibly lead us into bondage. 

When any man, who has much of this world, so that his interest weighs down a great number of his poor neighbors, and employs that interest contrary to the principles of virtue and honesty, any person of the least discernment may see he is a curse to the nation. 

When men's votes is solicited, or over-awed by some superiors, the election is not free.—Men in power and of large fortunes threaten us out of our liberty, by the weight of their interest. 

North-Carolinians, Are you sensible what you are doing, when, for some small favour, or sordid gratification, you sell your votes to such as want to inslave your country ?—you are publishing to all the world, that you are asses.—You are des. pised already by the sister colonies.—You are hurting your | trade; for men of publick generous spirits, who have fortunes . to promote trade, are discouraged from coming among you. 

You are also encouraging your own assembly-men to inslave you; for when they, who are elected, see that those who i had a right to elect them had no concern for their true interest, but that they were elected by chance, or power of their own, or some great man's interest, such men will be the more ready to vote in the assembly with as much indifference about the interest of their constituents as they had in voting them in. 

You may always suspect every one who overawes or wants to corrupt you; the same person will load you with burdens. You may easily find out who was tools to the governor, and who concurred in past assemblies to lay burdens on us, the edifice, paying the troops, the associates salaries, &c. Send not one of them ever any more; let them stand as beacons; set a mark on them, that ages to come may hold their memories in abhorrence. 

May not Carolina cry and utter her voice, and say, That she will have her publick accounts settled; that she will have her lawyers and officers subject to the laws.—That she will pay no taxes but what are agreeable to law.—That she will pay no officer nor lawyer any more fees than the law allows. That she will hold conferences to consult her representatives, and give them instructions; and make it a condition of their election, that they assert their privileges in the assembly, and cry aloud for appeal of all oppressive laws. 

Finally, My brethren, whenever it is in your power, take care to have the house of assembly filled with good honest and faithful men; and encourage and instruct them on al» occasions: And be sure to let your elections be no expence to them. 

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Balaam, I confess, loved the wages of unrighteousness too much; his conduct with the Almighty seems to have been similar to some men who have too strong a desire after drink, or to gratify some other lustful passion, who will plead with conscience, and contrive a hundred ways to gain its consent.— I have heard a drunken man say, he has made excuses in himself to go out with his gun, and kept working all day in his mind, till he had got the tippling house between him and home, when he has instantly got in a great hurry to get home by the dram-shop, and arguing, that now he really needed one dram;—has got so blinded by this time as, like Balaam, no more to see the angel that stood in his way. 

We generally get in a hurry of business before we can lose sight or get shut of our guide.—Lo, Balaam gets in great haste, was up early, and saddled his ass. 

And no doubt but his heart was full of the hopes of the rewards, full of great expectations, and perhaps was telling over in his mind what large sums of money he should bring home and how he should be honoured by the princes of Moab; and meditating, may be, what a pious work he would put the money to.—The lord had given him leave to go, but no doubt ho ought to have kept cool and resigned, and not have got in such a hurry, and filled his mind with such proclamations, that he could not see his guide that was to direct his steps.— Well, he is so blind, however, that conscience was invisible to him—when on a sudden, the ass started aside, and crushed his foot against the wall. 

This ass seems to resemble the people over whom the prophets are wont to rule, who never are apt to start aside any mora than asses, until the madness of the prophets become so visible, that forces one now and then to reprove them, who, perhaps, never opened their mouths before. 

When the Lord opened the mouth of the ass to speak in human stile, one would have thought it would have frightened any man almost out of his senses.—But Balaam was not easily frightened, but he was for caining and killing her. 

So when any poor ass now-a-days opens her mouth in human stile, or by way of teaching and reproving the rulers, they use him as Balaam did his ass, cane him with discipline, and threaten him with excommunication as the pharisees did the man who was born blind. 

And Balaam's ass spoke much like the complaints of an enslaved people.—Am not I thine ass?

Balaam had his ass saddled and prepared for mounting before he got on to ride;—so likewise it requires some pains and furniture to prepare a people to bear the yoke of slavery.—In civil administration, their general cry is to maintain courts of justice.—In matters of religious concern, it is necessary to have the people well persuaded of the rights and importance of the clergy, and the divinity of creeds and canons of churches, before they will submit to be mounted and ridden like asses. 

We will now resume our narrative. The lawless gang, who though they called themselves Regulators, were really disowned by the body, having committed some acts of personal violence on the government officers with a wanton destruction of property, Tryon resolved to consider the western part of the colony as in rebellion and to suppress it by military force. It was in vain that the more moderate and just intreated him to pause before he shed the blood of these honest men, with whom many of the eastern inhabitants so deeply sympathised, that the militia in some instances peremptorily refused to march against their countrymen. The Governor was obstinate, however, and took up his line of march from the sea-coast toward the west, collecting troops by the way, until on the evening of the 9th of May, 1771, he found himself encamped on the banks of the little stream, near the town of Hillsboro', with some ten or eleven hundred men; a portion of this force was cavalry; beside which he had two six pounders, and four small swivels. Here he obtained certain information which showed him that his situation was becoming critical and forced him to quicken his movements. He had ordered a certain portion of troops from the coast, to march westward by a route different from his own, and to make a junction with him at a point westward of Hillsboro', where he then was. This detachment had reached the town of Salisbury on their march to effect the contemplated juncture, and there halted to receive a supply of powder from Charleston. The Regulators, however, intercepted the convoy and destroyed the powder. The commanding officer of the detachment then determined to make the purposed junction with Tryon's troops at the appointed rendezvous; but the Regulators opposed his progress, entangled him in a skirmish, surrounded his small detachment, and took many of them prisoners. The commander with some few escaped to Salisbury. It may seem singular that in taking the powder and in this skirmish, no lives were lost. The reason was that the men from the east were really more favorable to the Regulators, than to the government, and offered but a seeming resistance.

News of these matters reached Tryon at Hillsboro'; beside he was informed that the Regulators were gathering in large numbers, and his own men, who had no wish to kill their fellow-citizens in battle, were rapidly deserting his camp. Nothing but a bold and expeditious movement could save him. Certain defeat awaited him if he remained where he was. He immediately, therefore, took up his line of march westward, toward the enemy, and on the evening of the 14th of May, pitched his camp on the banks of the Alamance. Thus far the ordinary histories agree; but the residue of the story is told differently by various writers, and is derived generally from the statements of the Governor and his adherents. But one or two, whose lot it was, to know and talk with men of integrity who were in the battle of Alamance have done justice to the Regulators. I shall tell the story according to my belief of the truth, after having made personally a survey of the ground, and duly weighing the testimony on both sides.

As to the Regulators, they were men accustomed to the use of the rifle, and by no means deficient in courage; but except in the two particulars of bravery and skill as sharp-shooters, they had none of the qualifications of soldiers. They knew nothing of discipline, had no commander-in-chief, were not even organized and officered in divisions for battle, had no cavalry, and many of them had never seen a piece of artillery. Two old Scotchmen, who had been privates in the British army, were probably the only men among them who had ever seen powder burned in a battle field. They knew that Tryon was coming: some among them thought there would be fighting, and moulded their bullets; and then placing in their hunting pouches as much powder and lead as they usually took on a hunting expedition, with rifle in hand, went out to join their countrymen. Others again, with no other ammunition than that within their guns, went out believing that, on conference, matters would be amicably adjusted without bloodshed; while yet a third class actually left their weapons at home, because they supposed, that being unarmed, the Governor would more readily enter into negotiations. But alas! they little knew the temper and disposition of William Tryon.

The number of those present was large, probably two thousand; but of these not more than half were armed, and a majority certainly did not expect blood would be shed. The general supposition was that the display of numbers merely would induce the Governor to pause, and enter into negotiations. 'As a proof that these men were not seditious, and had no desire beyond that of peaceably obtaining relief from oppression, we may refer to the fact that though Tryon readied the Alamance and encamped on it on the evening of the 14th, yet on the 15th, the Regulators, instead of an immediate attack on him, sent a messenger to the Governor, with a petition that he would redress their grievances, and desiring his answer within four hours. He sent back the messenger with a promise to return an answer by noon of the 16th. They believed him, and waited patiently for that answer. By break of day on the morning of the 16th, Tryon marched in perfect silence toward the Regulators, leaving his tents standing, and his baggage wagons with the horses ready harnessed for use, in his camp, under the protection of a guard. When he came within half a mile of the Regulators, who were in one extended line, some with arms and some without, and so unsuspicious of an attack that the young men in some parts of the line were actually wrestling and otherwise amusing themselves; the Governor formed his line of battle in two ranks, with the cannon in the centre of the front line. There were wise and good men who, though they sympathised with the Regulators, were not of their number, and these too were on the ground, in the hope of making peace and preventing bloodshed. Among these was the Rev. Dr. Caldwell: many of the Regulators, young and old, belonged to his spiritual charge. On the evening of the 15th, he had an interview with Tryon in his camp; and on the next day he passed, to and fro, three several times between the parties, and obtained from the Governor a solemn promise that he would not fire upon the Regulators, until he had fairly exhausted negotiation in the effort to terminate matters by an amicable adjustment. His statement of this promise to the Regulators undoubtedly lulled the greater part of them, for a time, into a false security. They were not liars themselves, and they naturally supposed a royal Governor would tell the truth. On the last visit of the worthy clergyman, Tryon, without the slightest attempt at the promised negotiation, sent back an answer to the petition of the day before: that answer was that he would grant them no terms but those of unconditional submission. With this message Dr. Caldwell was permitted to return, and while he was communicating it an event occurred in Tryon's camp which brands him with undying infamy, and brought on the battle. Among other peaceful men who passed to and fro in the good work of conciliation, was Robert Thompson, a man deservedly beloved and respected for his irreproachable character. He was without arms, and was not one of the Regulators. At all events, he was then and there a peace-maker. Soon after Dr. Caldwell had left, this man attempted to go back to his countrymen, and upon being prevented, merely remarked, that "as he had come in peaceably he had a right peaceably to return," when Tryon, without other provocation, snatched a gun from the hands of a soldier near him, and himself deliberately shot him, before any battle had commenced. Conscious that he had violated good faith in this murder, and apprehensive of consequences, he immediately sent out a white flag: many of the Regulators did not know what it meant, and though told by one of the two old Scotch soldiers not to fire on it, were so roused by the wanton butchery of Thompson, and the gross violation of his promise by Tryon, that they levelled their rifles and the flag of truce fell. The Governor immediately commanded his men to fire. They seemed indisposed to obey; the truth was that they did not wish to shed the blood of their fellow citizens. It was a critical moment for the Governor; yielding to a temper which he never had under much control, he rose in his stirrups, and in a voice of mingled rage and desperation he called on them to fire upon the Regulators or upon him. Some few ventured to obey his order to fire, and then the volley came from the line, Dr. Caldwell having barely time to escape from between the parties, before the discharge. The blood of the Regulators was now roused, and men who had come there with peaceful intentions, would not stand by, indifferent spectators of such a scene. Immediately after the volley, the Regulators who had neither discipline nor recognised leaders, adopted the Indian mode of warfare, and betaking themselves behind the trees, their rifles began to tell with deadly effect: they had their enemies on the road in the open plain, where they presented a fair mark, and so rapid were their discharges, that Tryon's troops had enough to do in returning their fire without making the hazardous attempt to change their position. The cannon opened immediately after the first fire, but except on the first and second discharges, probably with but little effect, as the Regulators were protected by the trees, and evidently had the best of the battle. In this state of things, Tryon sent out another flag of truce which was shot down in utter ignorance of what it meant. It probably was the precursor to negotiation, for the Governor found that he was likely to lose the field. When the flag fell, the firing commenced again, and the government troops unable to withstand the sure rifles of the Regulators, fell back from their position, about a hundred yards, leaving their cannon unprotected. Immediately some of the young men rushed forward and seized the pieces; but when possessed of them, they had no ammunition suited to them, nor did they know how either to work them or spike them; for the latter, probably they had no implements prepared: but they had driven the enemy from them and they were not further used in the battle. No less than sixteen men had been killed by one rifleman around these cannon. He with three others had taken a position near the artillery; here they were protected by a large tree and ledge of rocks. Half the artillery was directed against them to dislodge them, but without effect. Pugh, for such was the rifleman's name, fired every gun while the other three loaded for him. At length they were surrounded, and Pugh was made prisoner while the rest escaped. But at last the ammunition of the Regulators began to fail, and as this happened, they retired until only a small body was left. The government troops then advanced to surround them, but familiar as they were with the country, the greater part of them made their escape. Some fifteen or sixteen, however, were made prisoners, and so ended the battle of the Alamance, in which the government troops sustained far more loss of men than the Regulators.

And now, I would that this were all the story. But there is that yet to tell, which has caused the name of Tryon to be loaded with execrations, and remembered with detestation in North Carolina. Left on the battle ground, and therefore claiming a victory, Tryon the next day issued a proclamation offering pardon to all, if within five days, they would come into his camp, and take the oath of allegiance. Many complied, for they never intended to disclaim their allegiance to the crown. But we must particularly call attention to a part of the oath he administered, because of its bearing on the future history of the State. They were sworn, "never to bear arms against the King; but to take up arms for him if called upon."

The reader will see presently the consequence of this in Mecklenburg. After he felt secure, this miserable and unprincipled tyrant, made an ostentatious parade of himself and his army in the upper towns, with the few wretched prisoners he had made, accompanying him in chains to grace his triumph. Presently he reached Hillsboro' on his return to the East, and here he paused long enough to glut his revenge; for here he tried his prisoners. Before, however, this solemn mockery of justice, he had proceeded on the very evening of the battle, without form of law or even trial, to add to the butchery of Thompson, the murder of another victim. This was an unfortunate being named Few. Oppression and cruel wrong had deprived the poor creature of his reason. He was a carpenter by trade, and owned a small property which, with his parents, brothers and sisters he occupied. He was not merely, like the rest of his countrymen, oppressed by the officials of the government, but one of Tryon's proud minions had injured him more deeply still, by ruining the woman to whom he was betrothed. A modern historian, indeed, in the charitable endeavor to palliate, gently insinuates that this is but a tradition, and may not be true, Aye, but it is one of those traditions which burn themselves in upon the recollections of a whole people. The writer has lived on the spot where James Few lived; he has talked with men who were the contemporaries of James Few; and the tradition of his wrongs is spread over a large area, and has been preserved by many hundreds. The man was crazed by the occurrence; he brooded over it until he fancied that God had made him an avenger of human wrongs, and wrote to one of the Regulators that "he was sent by heaven to relieve the world from oppression; and that he was to begin in North Carolina." This paper fell into Tryon's hands, and so did the unhappy writer of it; he was taken prisoner at the battle, and on the evening of the same day, without a trial, William Tryon hung this poor victim of insanity, whom even a North American savage would have left unharmed, as a being from whom the Great Spirit claimed protection from every man.

But this was not all. Twelve other prisoners were tried at Hillsboro' on a charge of high treason, and six of them were condemned to death. The good clergyman whom I before mentioned, Dr. Caldwell, left his home to testify to their characters, and to intercede as a minister of mercy in their behalf. He failed in his benevolent effort, but he did not fail in standing by these poor victims, and in ministering spiritual comfort and aid to their souls, until, as to them, the scene closed in death. As to Tryon, in the whole proceeding, he showed that he had neither the generosity of a soldier, the dignity of a gentleman, the humanity of a man, nor the feelings of a christian. In the language of one of our writers, he "exerted the whole influence of his character against the lives of these people; for as soon as he was told that an indulgence of one day had been granted by the court to two of them to send for witnesses, who actually established their innocence and saved their lives, he sent one of his aids to the Judges and Attorney General to acquaint them that he was dissatisfied with their inactivity, and threatened to represent them unfavorably in England " if they did not proceed with more spirit and dispatch."

On the day of execution he had the whole army paraded and under arms. The arrangement of the troops, and all the details of the shocking and sad spectacle, were regulated and superintended by himself. He even selected the spot for the gallows.— Well might one of North Carolina's best patriots, commenting afterward on the transaction, say, that "the governors minute and personal attention to these particulars, left a ridiculous idea of his character behind, bearing a strong resemblance to that of an undertaker at a funeral."

But some of these poor victims, humble as they were in station, (for not one was a leader among the Regulators) were loyal, brave and pious. I once lived where the spot on which these men suffered met my eye every day; and many a pilgrimage have I made to the place, and there pondered on their fate. It was sad, very sad; but I thought that God who can overrule all man's wickedness, even to his own high purposes, had brought good out of this great wrong. He had made the flower of freedom grow out of the turf that covered these men's graves; and from every hillock, came a voice to their countrymen which, four years afterward they remembered: and the voice said "ye see here the tender mercies of an oppressive government to your murdered countrymen," and then the people said, it were better for them to die like men in overthrowing such a government, than to be hung like dogs for complaining of it: and so they swore, God being their helper, that they would be free:—and they are free.

But before we leave this part of the subject, we must tell a story or two connected with the execution of these men: it will then be seen how the seeds of the after revolution were sown in the hearts of their countrymen. It will be remembered that the rifleman Pugh, who in the battle dealt out death so surely to the artillerists, was a prisoner. He was one of the victims. "When placed under the gallows, he asked permission of the Governor to speak, he was told that he might have one half hour for that purpose. He was perfectly calm, and even dignified; not a muscle quivered, nor a nerve shook. He began by saying that he had long, as he hoped and believed, been prepared to meet his God in another world, that he was therefore not afraid to die: that he had no acknowledgments of wrong to make, no pardon to ask for what he had done; then turning to his countrymen, he told them that he was sure his blood would be as seed sown on good ground, and that ere long they would see it produce an hundred fold. He then recapitulated briefly the oppressions of the people and the causes which had led to the late conflict, asserted that the Regulators had taken the life of no man before the battle commenced, and that they sought nothing more than the lawful redress of their grievances. He then turned to the governor and charged him with having brought an army there to murder the people instead of taking sides with them, as he should have done, against a swarm of dishonest officers; he advised him to put away from him his corrupt favorites, and to be the friend of the people whom he was sent to govern; and here, said he, (pointing to Fanning,) here is one of those favorites, utterly unfit to be in authority:— At these words the denounced minion gave the signal, and the further fearless denunciation was hushed in death before the allotted half hour had expired.

Another case, that of Messer, was more melancholy still. He was active as a regulator, and having been taken prisoner was to have been hung the day after the battle. His wife having heard of his intended fate, early the next morning hastened to her husband to see the last of him on earth, and took with her, her son a child of ten years old. She threw herself on the ground before Tryon and implored him but in vain. The preparations were almost completed, and the fatal moment had well nigh come; the heart broken wife was lying on the ground, her face hidden in her hands, her boy weeping over her, when suddenly the child, leaving his mother, stepped up to Tryon and asked him to hang him, and let his father live. Tryon demanded of the child who had instructed him to act as he did. The answer of the boy was "no body." "What," said Tryon, "is the reason you make this request?" "Because," answered the child with tears, "if you hang my father, my mother will die, and all the children will perish." Even Tryon was touched with the earnestness and simplicity of the boy, and promised him that his father should not be hung on that day. But he hung him afterwards in Hillsborough.

And with the remark that it was this same Tryon who was transferred soon after to the colony of New York, and became Governor there, and who with circumstances of wanton cruelty burned Danbury and Fairfield; we leave the subject of the Regulation War and the field of Alamance.

Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Who were the Regulators?

The Regulators were never a formal organization with designated members. It was an affiliation of rural farmers along the then-boundary of Orange and Rowan Counties – now eastern Randolph and Guilford Counties. As well there were many involved in the Regulation who lived in other areas of the North Carolina Piedmont.

Carole Troxler’s book includes a long list of signatories to such petitions. Jerry Cross (on behalf of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources) developed a list of these signers and their names are memorialized at the Alamance Battleground. Working from Mr. Cross's list, Wallace L McKeehan has come up with the following list of men active in the Regulator movement:

http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/mckstmerindivid.htm

I reprint his list here (with a few corrections of my own).  In some cases, where I have located brief references I have included a paragraph on the involvement of some of these Regulators:

Acuages, John
Adams, James
Adams, Thomas
Adams, William
Aiken, Jones
Albright, William
Aldridge, James
Aldridge, Nathan
Aldridge, Nicholas
Alexander, Thomas
Alexander, William
Allen, Joseph
Allen, Samuel
Allmond, James
Allrid, William
Almond, Edward
Almond, Seamore
Andriss, Adam
Andriss, Conrad
Armstrong, Isaac
Armstrong, James
Arnett, James F.
Arrington, Thomas
Ashley, Nathaniel
Ashley, Robert
Ashmore, Walter
Awtray, Alex
Bailey, John
Baily, Thomas
Balice, Thomas
Bannistor, William
Barber, Richard
Barber, William
Barindine, James
Barindine, William Jr. & Sr.
Barker, James
Barker, Nicholas
Barker, Samuel
Barnes, Brinsley
Barnes, James
Barnes, John
Barrett, Benjamin
Barrett, Thomas
Barton, John
Barton, William
Baxter, John
Beaty, Thomas
Beck, Jeffrey
Beel, Thomas
Belhany, Thomas
Bell, John
Bellew, Abraham
Belvin, George
Belvin, Isaac
Bennett, John
Benton, William
Bery, John
Beten, William
Bignour, James

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Billingsley, James
Bynum, James
Blake, Thomas

John Coulie and Thomas Blake are mentioned by Carruthers (page 131) as “Regulators who were spreading their principles in [Dobbs County].” (Carruthers, page 131)

Blewett, William
Bly, James
Boatman, Waterman
Boe, John
Boggan, Patrick Jr.
Boggs, Joseph
Boilston, Will
Bond, John
Bond, W.C.B.
Boothe, Charles
Boring, Joseph

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Bosil, William
Bound, James
Bradley, Abram
Bradley, Lawrence
Brady, Ayen
Branson, Ely

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770.

Branson, Thomas
Brantley, James
Braswell, Benjamin
Braswell, Richard
Bray, Edward
Bray, Henry
Brewer, Nickless
Bricks, John
Brisley, Peter
Broadway, Robert
Brooks, Isaac
Brooks, Jacob W.
Brooks, Jacob W.
Brooks, James
Brooks, James
Brooks, John
Brown, Daniel
Brown, David
Brown, James
Brown, Robert
Brown, William

William Brown was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

Brox, John
Brucham, James
Brur, Noel
Brus, John
Bruton, Samuel
Bryan, John
Buchanan, Samuel
Bullen, John
Bumpass, John

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Bunt, Benjamin
Burcham, Henry
Burcham, John
Burcham, Joseph
Burgies, James
Burns, Darass
Burns, William
Burt, William
Burtson . John
Busen, William
Bush, Stephen
Buskin, Abraham
Butler, John
Butler, William

Per NCPedia.org William Butler (fl. 1768–73) by James K. Huhta: “William Butler, farmer and insurgent, was probably born in Virginia before 1730 and was likely the son of William and Frances Watson Butler...In 1768, while living near Sandy Creek in Orange County, he was appointed a county tax collector; in 1770 he was appointed a deputy sheriff in Orange County...emerged as a principal leader of the Regulators by the late 1760s. He was central in events at Hillsborough in 1768 and 1770 and at Alamance Creek in 1771. Butler, along with two others, was declared an outlaw by the governor of North Carolina in June 1771. After the events at Alamance Creek, Butler apparently fled North Carolina and, by May 1773, settled at the ‘headwaters of Walker's Creek’ in Fincastle County, Va. In 1772, John Butler of Orange County sought unsuccessfully to obtain a pardon for his brother from Governor Josiah Martin and then warned William against planning to settle in North Carolina again." William Butler was arrested (along with Harmon Husband) as part of Fanning’s midnight raid on the Sandy Creek community in the Spring of 1768 (Carruthers, page 119) and at the September 1768 Superior Court was convicted of rioting. (Carruthers, page 128) The Regulator Docket (Orange County Superior Court Minutes, September 1770) record that “Several persons styling themselves Regulators assembled together in the court yard under the conduct of Harmon Husband, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William Butler, Samuel Divinny, and many others…” and carried out the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 131) Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143) Rednap Howell, Harmon Husband, James Hunter and William Butler were outlawed after the Battle of Alamance. (Carruthers, page 157)
William Butler unsuccessfully prosecuted cases against local officials at the March 1769 Superior Court in Hillsborough. (Troxler page 78)

Calley, Patrick
Cain, John

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Cain, William
Capin, John
Caps, William
Carpenter, Jobs
Carr, Joseph
Cartwright, John
Caruthers, Robert
Caterham, John
Ceinght, Peter
Chafen, Joseph
Chambers, Edward
Cheek, Randolph
Cheney, Francis
Christian, Christopher
Christian, Thomas
Christman, Jacob
Cilleadon, Job
Clanton, Benjamin
Clapp, Barney
Clapp, George
Clapp, Ludwig
Clapp, Tobias
Claps John
Clark, Elijah
Clark, Joseph
Clark, Samuel

The last exchange of letters on May 15, 1771 was a communique from the Regulators, signed by John Williams, Samuel Low, James Wilson, Joseph Scott and Samuel Clark.

Clark. John
Clauton, Charles
Cochran, Benjamin W.
Cockerham, John
Code, Timothy
Colbon, James
Coleman, John
Coleman, William
Collins, Jacob
Collins, Joshua
Conkwrite, Harklis
Copeland, James

James Copeland was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

Copeland, William Jr.
Copeland, William Sr.
Coplin, Nicklos
Coplin, Thomas
Corry, John
Cortner, Peter
Coulie, John

John Coulie and Thomas Blake are mentioned by Carruthers (page 131) as “Regulators who were spreading their principles in [Dobbs County].” (Carruthers, page 131) There was a “John Gugle” indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144) Same person?

Covington, Benjamin
Cowen, John
Cox, David
Cox, Harmon

Harmon Cox was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

Cox, Joseph
Cox, Solomon
Cox, Thomas
Cox, William

William Cox was appointed to represent the Deep River area at the meeting at Maddocks Mill appointed for 10 Oct 1768. (Carruthers, page 109)

Craswell, John
Craswell, William
Craven, John
Craven, Joseph
Craven, Peter

Peter Craven was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75)  Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Craven, Thomas
Creaton, Patrick

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Creeson, Abraham

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Crofts, Solomon
Croswell, Gilbard
Croswell, John
Croswell, William
Crow, John
Crow, Mansfield
Culberson, Andrew
Culberson, Samuel
Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)
Culpepper, Daniel
Culpepper, John
Culpepper, Thompson
Culpepper, William
Curie, Ezekel
Curie, John

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Curtiss, Samuel
Dark, Samuel
Davis, Enoch
Davis, Gabriel
Davis, James
Davis, John
Davis, Jonathan
Davis, Matthew
Davis, Robert
Davis, Thomas
Davis, William
Debury, Samuel
Delap, James
Delap, Robert
Denson, James
Denson, Shadrach
Deviney, Samuel

Tried (along with Husband and Butler) at Hillsborough in September 1768. The Regulator Docket (Orange County Superior Court Minutes, September 1770) record that “Several persons styling themselves Regulators assembled together in the court yard under the conduct of Harmon Husband, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William Butler, Samuel Divinny, and many others…” and carried out the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 131) Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143)

Digges, William
Dinkins, Thomas
Dinkins, William
Dison, Charlie
Dixon, Simon
Dobbins, Jacob
Donner, Thomas
Dorset, Francis
Dowas, Richard
Dowd, Dyer
Dowdy, Daniel
Dray, Jacob
Drinkin, William
Duckworth, Jeremiah
Dumas, Benjamin
Dumas, David
Dunham, John
Dunn, Bartholomew
Dunn, John
Dunn, Simon Jr.

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Dunn, William

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Edwards, Joshua
Edwards, Meager
Ellis, James
Emmerson, James

James Emmerson was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

English, Joseph
English, Matthew
English, William
Erwin, John
Estress, George
Estress, William
Evans, Aaron
Evans, James
Falconbery, Andrew
Falconbery, Henry
Falconbery, Isaac Jr.
Falconbery, Isaac Sr.
Falconbery, John
Fall, Christen
Fanning, John
Fanning, Thomas Jr.
Fanning, Thomas Sr.
Fany, William
Few, Benjamin
Few, James

James Few was hung on the battlefield immediately following the Battle of Alamance. Few is said to have been motivated especially by personal animosity toward Edmund Fanning who had “seduced” Few’s fiancĂ©e. (Carruthers, page 158)

Few, William Sr.
Fielding, William
Fields, Jeremiah & William

Jeremiah Fields and his brother William were both leaders in the Regulation. Jeremiah acted as spokesman for the Regulators during the 1768 raid on the courthouse in Hillsborough. A third brother – Robert is said to have also been active. The three were children when their widowed mother moved them and 4 other siblings from Lancaster Co, Pennsylvania to North Carolina in the mid to early 1750’s. Jane Field received her grant from Lord Granville in 1755ish. Jane’s husband William Field is buried in an Anglican graveyard in Virginia. During the Revolution, William Field and others in his family remained loyal to the Crown - as William later explained, he felt duty bound to uphold the oath he took after the Battle of Alamance. Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Jeremiah Field stood up in court in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770 as spokesman for the Regulators. (Troxler page 87)

Fike, John
Fike, Malachy

Malachi Fike was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Filker, Jacob
Firnier, Marton
Flake, Thomas

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Flake, Samuel
Flemmin, John
Forbis, John
Fortenbury, Henry
Fortenbury, John
Foshea, Joseph
Fox, Thomas
Franklin, Leonard
French, Joseph
French, Neal
Fruit, John

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770.

Fudge, Jacob
Fuller, John
Fuller, Josua
Fuller, Thomas
Futrelle, Thomas
Gappen, John

Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143)

Gardner, Parish
Garran, James
Gaylord, Samuel
Garner, Thomas
George, Joseph
Gibson, James
Gibson, Silverster
Gibson, Walter
Gibson, William
Gideon, Gilbert Jr.
Gideon, Gilbert Sr.
Gilbert Joshua
Gilbert, Jonathan
Gillespie, Daniel

Fought at the Battle of Alamance. (Carruthers, page 171) The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)


Gillespie, John

Fought at the Battle of Alamance. (Carruthers, page 171)

Gillmore, William
Gilmer, John
Ginil, Peter
Glase, Christian
Glase, George
Glase, Philip Jr.
Glase, Philip Sr.
Glase, Powel
Glover, Thomas
Goble, George
Goble, John
Goble, Nicholas
Goff, Solomon

Solomon Goff was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Goldstone, Charles
Gordon, Frank
Gortner, George
Gowers, Jonathan
Gowers, Thomas
Graham, James

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Graves, John
Graves, Thomas
Green, William
Greers, William
Griffin, Andrew
Griffin, James
Grigg, Jacob
Gring, Fagan
Gross, Solomon
Grubbs, Benjamin
Grubbs, John
Gugle, John
Hadley, James A.
Hadley, Jesse
Hadley, Joshua
Hadley, Simeon
Haley, Isam
Haley, Silas
Haley, William Jr.
Haley, William Sr.
Hamilton, Archibald
Hamilton, Hanson

In the Spring of 1769, Orange Co Sheriff John Lea was beaten by John Pugh while the Sheriff had been attempting to serve a warrant on Hanson Hamilton. (Carruthers, page 129)

Hamilton, Matthew

Matthew Hamilton was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75)  Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143)

Hamilton, Ninian

Ninian Hamilton was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Hamilton, Ninian Bell

Ninian Bell Hamilton was “an old Scotchman, 60 or 708 years of age” who organized the Regulators’ march on Hillsborough to free Harmon Husband following Fanning’s Spring 1768 raid on the Sandy Creek community. (Carruthers, page 122) Hamilton was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Hamilton, Thomas
Hammer, Abraham
Harden, Stephen
Haridon, James

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Harland, Aaron
Harland, Reuben
Harlow, Eron
Harmon, Zach
Harper, Abraham
Harper, Samuel
Harper, Thomas
Harris, Joseph
Harrison, Jesse
Harrison, Joseph
Hart, John
Hartso, Philip
Hartso, John

John Hartso was tried (along with Husband and Butler) at Hillsborough in September 1768. Seriously?

Helms, Jonathan
Helms, Tilmon
Henderson, Argulus
Henderson, John
Henderson, William
Hendry, George
Hendrye, Thomas Jr.
Hendrye, Thomas Sr.
Henry, George
Henson, Charles
Henson, John
Henson, Joseph
Henson, Joseph
Henson, William
Herndon, James
Herndon, James
Herring, Delany
Herrman, Henry
Hickman, William
Hielerman, Nicholas
Higgins, James
Higgins, John
Higgins, William
Hill, Thomas
Hilton, Abraham
Hilton, John
Hindes, Joseph
Hines, Charles
Hinsinbru, Jason Iron
Hintrand, William
Hogins, Thadwick
Hogon, William Griffin
Holley, Julius
Honest, Michael
Hopper, Thomas
Hore, William
Horn, Jacob
Hornbeck, John
Howard, Nehemiah
Howe, John
Howell, Rednap

Per NCPedia.org article by Elmer D. Johnson Rednap Howell (d. 1787): “Rednap Howell, ‘poet of the Regulators,’ moved to North Carolina from New Jersey, probably in the early 1760s. He settled first in present Chatham County, then moved about 1768 to what is now Randolph County. Howell is supposed to have been a teacher and certainly was well educated for his time. He wrote several ‘Regulator poems’ satirizing the men and events associated with the Regulator uprising in North Carolina from 1768 to 1771…Howell first appeared on the Regulator scene in May 1768 as one of the signers of a petition to Governor William Tryon, stating the grievances of the western North Carolina farmers against the appointed county officials. Howell and James Hunter carried the petition to Tryon, who refused to hear their grievances and demanded that the Regulators pay their taxes and obey the laws of the province…In September 1770, they prevented court from being held in Hillsborough, the seat of Orange County. Howell was later indicted in connection with this incident…In January 1771 Howell learned that Herman Husband, another Regulator leader, had been imprisoned in New Bern and began raising a force to release him. Because Husband was released by the court, the expedition did not take place…Howell was present at the beginning of the Battle of Alamance, but is thought to have left the field without taking part in the fighting. Nevertheless, he was outlawed by Governor Tryon and a reward was offered for his capture, dead or alive. After Alamance, Howell fled to Maryland and later returned to New Jersey, where he died. As far as is known, he never married.” James Hunter and Rednap Howell waited in Brunswick to petition the Governor on behalf of the Regulators in June 1768. (Carruthers, page 124) Howell was from New Jersey, was a schoolmaster and is thought to be the poet of the Regulators. (Carruthers, page 129) The Regulator Docket (Orange County Superior Court Minutes, September 1770) record that “Several persons styling themselves Regulators assembled together in the court yard under the conduct of Harmon Husband, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William Butler, Samuel Divinny, and many others…” and carried out the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 131) Rednap Howell, while out proselytizing for the Regulators in Halifax County wrote to James Hunter in February 1771 to report on his efforts, though the letter was intercepted by Gov. Tryon’s supporters. (Carruthers, page 138) Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143) Rednap Howell, Harmon Husband, James Hunter and William Butler were outlawed after the Battle of Alamance. (Carruthers, page 157)

Hunter, James

James Hunter and Rednap Howell waited in Brunswick to petition the Governor on behalf of the Regulators in June 1768. (Carruthers, page 124) Hunter was also one of three signers of a letter on behalf of the Regulators to Gov. Tryon in late summer 1768. (Carruthers, page 127) James Hunter was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75)  The Regulator Docket (Orange County Superior Court Minutes, September 1770) record that “Several persons styling themselves Regulators assembled together in the court yard under the conduct of Harmon Husband, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William Butler, Samuel Divinny, and many others…” and carried out the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 131) Rednap Howell, while out proselytizing for the Regulators in Halifax County wrote to James Hunter in February 1771 to report on his efforts, though the letter was intercepted by Gov. Tryon’s supporters. (Carruthers, page 138) Gov Tryon had indictments handed down against William Butler, John Gappen, Samuel Divinney, James Hunter, Matthew Hamilton and Rednap Howell for their alleged roles in the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 143) Rednap Howell, Harmon Husband, James Hunter and William Butler were outlawed after the Battle of Alamance. (Carruthers, page 157)

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

James Hunter sued Edmund Fanning and Michael Holt II in Hillsborough in March 1770, losing to Fanning, but prevailing over Holt. (Troxler page 85)

Inyard, John 

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Jackson, Isaac
Jones, Samuel 

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Julian, Peter

Peter Julian was one of three signers of a letter on behalf of the Regulators to Gov. Tryon in late summer 1768. (Carruthers, page 127)
The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Laws, Dan
Layn, Marveric
Leak, Richard
Leary, William
Leaton, William
Leveritt, John
Leveritt, William
Liles, James
Liles, John
Lille, Muicher
Lindley, Thomas
Linterman, Henry

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Litten, Mincher
Llewellyn, Jonathan
Lloyd, Iomond
Lloyd, Thomas
Locke, Matthew

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Logan, Andrew
Long, John
Lord, Lewis
Lowe, James

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Lowe, John
Lowe, Samuel

The last exchange of letters on May 15, 1771 was a communique from the Regulators, signed by John Williams, Samuel Low, James Wilson, Joseph Scott and Samuel Clark.

Lowery, James
Lowery, Lewis
Lowery, Robert
Lucas, William Jr.
Luin, John
Mackejh, James
MacPherson, William
Macvay, John
Maner, Richard
Marchbanks, George
Marfay, Roger
Marmane, Larence
Marsevaine, John
Marshall, Jacob
Marshall, John
Martin, Joseph
Martin, Zachariah
Mason, John
Mason, Ralph
Mason, Thomas Jr.
Mason, Thomas Sr.
Mateer, Robert

Per Some Neglected History of North Carolina by W.E. Fitch, 1905: “Robert Matear, one of the unfortunate victims, was a quiet, inoffensive, upright man, who had never joined the Regulators . . . According to Caruthers in his Life of Caldwell, a few years before the battle he went to Newberne to sell a load of produce, and Tryon, having learned where he was from, as there were no mail lines in those days, made him the bearer of a letter to Alexander Martin at Salisbury . . . he opened the letter on the road as he was returning home and read it. He was so disgusted with the haughtiness and tyranny which it manifested, that he handed it over to one of his neighbors who was friendly to the Regulators. Through their carelessness or intemperate zeal, it became known, and was the sole cause of his death.” Robert Mateer was co-emissary (along with Robert Thompson) from the Regulators to the Governor at the last moment befor the Battle of Alamance. The shooting began while Mateer and Thompson were in the Governor’s camp. Mateer escaped, but Thompson was killed on the spot (by Tryon himself, as the story goes). (Carruthers, pages 153, 164) 

The following were hanged at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771: James Pugh, Robert Messer, Benjamin Merrill and Robert Mateer. (Troxler page 117)

Mathew, Ned
Mathews, Anthony
Mathews, James
Mathews, John
Mathin, Anthony
Maudlin, Benjamin
Maudlin, John
Maudlin, Jonie
McCaul, James
McCay, Daniel
McClewland, John
McCoy, Archibald
McCoy, John
McDaniel, Jacob
McIlvailly, John
McMeot, James
McNish, John
McPherson, Alexander
McPherson, Joseph

Joseph McPherson came to what is now Chatham County in 1765 and witnessed many events of the Regulation. Joseph and two of his brothers were at the Battle of Alamance and his eyewitness account is related in Carruthers at pages 112 & 155. MsPherson was also on hand when the Regulators descended on Hillsborough in September 1768 and snuck into tot own to discuss Harmon Husbands fate with Edmund Fanning. (Troxler page 74) 

McQuinton, John
McSwaine, Patrick
Meadow, Jason Jr.
Meadow, Jason Sr.
Melon, Thomas
Melton, Jeremiah
Mercer, Forester

Forester Mercer was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

Merns, Thomas
Merree, John II
Merrill, Benjamin

Per History of the Liberty Baptist Association by Elder Henry Sheets, 1907 (page 158): Capt. Benjamin Merrill, of the Jersey settlements near Salisbury...was on his way to join the Regulators at Alamance, with a company of more than three hundred men, when he intercepted Gen. Hugh Waddell and forced him to flee to Salisbury, after taking most of his command prisoners. Captain Merrill was within one day's march of the Alamance when he heard the cannonading, and soon afterwards heard of the victory of the Governor's army. He is said to have regretted that he was not present with his men to have bled with those who fought for liberty. After hearing of the defeat of his comrades he disbanded his men and returned home. He was taken prisoner by a detachment under Colonel Fanning, and brought to Tryon's army, encamped at 'Jersey Settlement Camp,' on Saturday, June 1, 1771; to the west of the Jersey settlement near the Yadkin River, and put in chains with the other prisoners and dragged through the country to Hillsborough, where with his life he paid the forfeit. In this trying situation he gave his friends satisfactory evidence that he was prepared to die, for he not only professed faith in Christ, his hope of heaven, and his willingness to go, but sang a psalm very devoutly, like the Covenanters in the grass market in Edinburgh, and died like a Christian and soldier. On being permitted to speak just before the execution, he said that fifteen years previously he had been converted, but had back-slidden, yet now felt that he was freely forgiven and that he would not change places with any one on the grounds. In conclusion he referred feelingly to his wife and eight children, saying, 'I entreat that no reflection be cast upon them on my account'; and requested that some part of his estate be spared for the widow and fatherless. It is said that one of Tryon's soldiers was heard to declare that if all men went to the gallows with a character such as Captain Merrill's, "hanging would be an honorable death." If Captain Merrill with his three hundred men had reached the Alamance the day before the battle, the Regulators would have had a commanding officer, and the result might have been quite different from what it was…[Benjamin Merrill’s] plantation, on which was his home, was some four miles south of Lexington, NC and about two miles east from Jersey Church. The writer recently visited the spot where once stood the residence of Captain Merrill…It is said that our hero was a gunsmith, and that the strong branch running at the foot of the hill near where his residence stood afforded the power necessary to operate the simple machinery used in boring out the barrels. In the evening he would arrange a barrel for boring and start his crude machinery and leave it running all night.

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

The following were hanged at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771: James Pugh, Robert Messer, Benjamin Merrill and Robert Mateer. (Troxler page 117)

Messer, Captain

Per Some Neglected History of North Carolina by W.E. Fitch, 1905: “Captain Messer, who, as you remember, was captured just after the battle, along with the poor unfortunate Few, who was hanged on the battle-field without trial by jury or by court martial, was to have been hanged the following day, but owing to a very affecting incident already noted, he was reserved for the Hillsborough fete, June 19, 1771.” Same tale told. (Carruthers, page 166)
The following were hanged at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771: James Pugh, Robert Messer, Benjamin Merrill and Robert Mateer. (Troxler page 117)

Miles, Charles
Miles, John Jr.
Miles, John Sr.
Miles, Thomas
Miller, Jero
Mills, John
Mims, John
Mims, Thomas
Mims, William
Mitchell, William
Moffitt, James
Moffitt, William

William Moffitt was appointed to represent the Deep River area at the meeting at Maddocks Mill appointed for 10 Oct 1768. (Carruthers, page 109) Moffitt among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Montgomery, Captain

Carruthers (citing the Weekly Times) says that Captain Montgomery “commanded a company of mountain boys” at the Battle of Alamance and was killed early in the engagement.

Moon, Thomas
Moore, Edward
Moore, Thomas
Moorman, Bennakia
Moorman, Thomas
Morgan, Goin C.
Morgan, James
Morgan, John
Morgan, Ruddy
Morgan, Solomon
Morris, Edward
Morris, John
Morris, Joseph
Morris, William Jr.
Morris, William Sr.
Morrow, William
Moses, Adam
Muchecenes, Larence
Mullen, Patrick
Murphy, John
Murphy, John
Murray, James
Nanit, George
Nation, Christopher

Christopher Nation (son of John Sr) was a Quaker who came to Rowan County (perhaps from Hopewell Virginia) to the New Graden Meeting sometime 1761 perhaps as early as 1751. In 1768, Christopher Nation was among 22 Regulars assembled at Hillsborough who petitioned Governor Tryon to pardon the Regulators past excesses, but Nation (along with James Hunter, Ninion Hamilton, Peter Craven, Isaac Jackson, Harmon Husband, Matthew Moffit, Christopher Nation, Solomon Cross and John Oneal ) were exempt from the offer of pardon which Governor Tryon issued in response on October 3, 1768.  Christopher Nation was elected to the House of Representatives from Rowan County at the same time that Harmon Husband was elected from Orange County in the voter uprising of 1769. About which election Henry Eustace McCulloh wrote to Colonel John Harvey  on 30 Mar 1770: “‘I thank you for the journal of your political proceedings:-the madness of the people must be great indeed, to trust such wretches as Harmon Husbands and Christopher Nation, as their representatives;--but it is a comfort, that violent mad fits seldom last long.’  Nation moved to Stokes County, NC after the Revolution, and by 1800 was in the Greenville District of South Carolina. (summarized from http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/VICKERY/2000-01/0946855263)

Needham, Thomas
Needham, William
Nelson, Dennis Jr.
Nelson, Dennis Sr.
Nelson, Thomas
Newberry, William
Noe, John
Norton, William
Odle, Nehemiah
Oliver, James
O'Neal, John

John O'Neal was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Owens, Stephen
Paine, William
Par, John
Park, Joseph
Parks, Samuel
Parsons, George

George Parsons molded bullets in anticipation of the Battle of Alamance and fought there. (Carruthers, page 156)

Paterson, John
Paygee, John
Paygee, William
Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Payne, William

William Payne was among those who were not allowed to take the Governor's offer of pardon in 1768. (Troxler page 75) 

Pelyou, Abraham
Penton, John
Person, Thomas

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Phelps, David
Phipps, John
Phipps, Joseph
Pickett, Edward
Pickral, Henry
Piecock, Stephen
Piles, John
Pilgrim, Amos
Pleourt, John
Polk, Thomas
Pooey, Francis
Pooey, Umfrey
Porter, James
Poston, J. Jr.
Poston, Jonathan
Powell, Nathaniel
Preslar, Thomas
Preslie, John
Prestwood, Augustine
Pryor, John

Regulator candidate elected in July 1769 as Harmon Husband’s seatmate. (Troxler page 79)

Pugh, Enoch
Pugh, James

Per Some Neglected History of North Carolina by W.E. Fitch, 1905: "During the battle, James Pugh, gunsmith by trade, - who had repaired many of the Regulators' guns prior to the fight, -  a sharpshooter and a brother in law of Harmon Husband, with three other men, securely protected by a ledge of rocks and a large tree on the edge of a ravine, did great execution with rifles. Pugh, being a crack sharpshooter, did the firing, while the other three men did the loading for him. He killed fifteen of Tryon's artillerymen. Although the cannon were directed against Pugh and his assistants, they could not be driven from their position; but at length they were surrounded. Pugh was taken prisoner. The others made their escape, and Pugh was tried for treason and executed a month later at Hillsborough." Similar account, Carruthers, page 156. Pugh was a gunsmith etc. (Carruthers, page 165)

The following were hanged at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771: James Pugh, Robert Messer, Benjamin Merrill and Robert Mateer. (Troxler page 117)

Pugh, Jesse
Pugh, John

In the Spring of 1769, Orange Co Sheriff John Lea was beaten by John Pugh while the Sheriff had been attempting to serve a warrant on Hanson Hamilton. (Carruthers, page 129)

Pugh, Thomas
Raiford, Matthew Jr.
Raiford, Matthew Sr.
Raines, John
Ramsay, James
Ramsay, John
Ramsouer, Michael
Ranetalor, Thomas
Raney, William
Rankin, William

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Ratcliff, Elisha R.
Ratcliff, Sam Jr.
Ratcliff, Samuel
Ray, Samuel
Rennolds, Peth
Richardson, Joseph
Richardson, Sam
Richerson, Peter
Riddle, thomas
Roberson, Thomas
Robertson, James
Robeson, William

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Robins, James
Robinson, Charles
Robinson, Luke
Robinson, Tirey
Rogers, Hyram
Rogers, jacob
Rogers, Josiah
Rogers, Sion
Rogers, William
Roles, Damsey
Rollins, Drury
Round, James
Routh, Joseph
Rudd, Burlingham
Ruine, David
Rushen, Mark
Ryan, John
Ryle, John
Sally, George A.
Sanders, David
Sanders, James
Sanders, Thomas E.
Sanders, William
Sanderson, Reuben

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Sands, Richard
Sappenfield, Matthias
Saxon, Benjamin
Saxon, Charles
Schwenck, Matthew
Scott, Joseph

The last exchange of letters on May 15, 1771 was a communique from the Regulators, signed by John Williams, Samuel Low, James Wilson, Joseph Scott and Samuel Clark.

Searcy, Reuben
Self, Job
Sellars, Thomas
Senderman, Henry
Shaw, Philip Jr.
Shaw, Philip Sr.
Shepherd, John
Shoemaker, Conrad
Shor, John
Short, Daniel
Short, James
Short, William
Sidden, William
Sidewell, John
Sike, Christian
Simmons, John
Sims, George
Sitton, Philip
Skin, Samuel
Skinner, John
Skipper, Barnabee
Skipper, George
Slaughter, Owen
Smith, Abner
Smith, Alexander
Smith, Benjamin
Smith, Charles
Smith, Daniel

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Smith, David
Smith, David
Smith, Edward

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Smith, Francois
Smith, Henry
Smith, James

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Smith, John
Smith, Moses
Smith, Peter
Smith, Richard
Smith, Robert
Smith, Thomas H

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

Smith, Will
Smith, Zachariah
Snider, John
Sondhill, John S.
Soots, Jacob
Sounders, Patrick
Southerland, Raleigh
Sowel, John
Sowel, Lewis
Sowel, William
Sowell, Charles S.
Sowell, Sam
Spinks, William
Springfellow, William
Stewart, James

James Stewart was convicted at Hillsborough in 1771, but pardoned by Governor Tryon. (Troxler page 117)

Stewart, John
Stinkberry, John
Stinton, Eron
Stokes, Henry
Stollie, Jacob
Strader, Henry
Stringer, John
Strongfellow, William
Stroud, Abraham
Suggs, John T.
Sutton, John
Sweany, James
Sweany, Joseph
Swearinger, Samuel
Swearinger, Thomas
Swearinger, Thomas
Swearington, Van
Swift, Thomas
Swing, Barnet
Swing, Lodwick
Swor, John Jr.
Swor, John Sr.
Swor, Jonathan Jr.
Tallant, Moses M.
Tallant, Thomas
Tapley, Hosea
Taylor, thomas
Teague, Abraham
Teague, Edward
Teague, Elijah
Teague, John
Teague, Joshua

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Teague, Moses
Teague, William
Telfair, Jacob

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Temply, Frederick
Thomas, John
Thomas, Samuel
Thomas, Zekial
Thompson, Elisha
Thompson, John
Thompson, Robert

Robert Thompson was apparently acting as a last minute emissary from the Regulators to Governor Tryon immediately before the Battle of Alamance, when the battle itself broke out. Tryon reputedly shot Thompson as he attempted to flee. (Carruthers, page 153)

Thompson, Samuel
Thompson, William
Thorn, Robert
Thornsbury, Edward
Thornsbury, William
Thornton, Abraham
Thornton, Thomas
Thorton, David
Thredhill, William
Tomlinson, Turner
Tomson, William
Tonenberg, Samuel
Torrance, John
Touchberry, John
Tree, Thomas
Treneen, William
Trull, Thomas
Tukins, Timothy
Turner, Jonathan
Tynor, William
Upton, James
Ussery, Thomas
Ussery, Welcome
Ussery, William
Vernon, Amos
Vickery, John

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Vickery, Marmaduke

Marmaduke Vickery (c 1715 – 1788, m Elizabeth Swaim c1740) arrived in North Carolina sometime before 1757 when he received a survey from Granville for 151 acres in what is now Randolph County. He may have been in NC as early as 1753. Vickery is said to have been an active Regulator, and he was among the captured Regulators who were paraded through the Moravian settlements in chains. (Carruthers, page 160) However, he was not executed at the Court Martial in Hillsborough, pledging his allegiance to the Crown. Marmaduke and Elizabeth had at least eight children two of whom married into the Swaim family and two others into the Robbins family, while yet another married one of the Nation boys.

Vonstraver, Peter
Wade, Henry

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Wagner, Samuel

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Wainscott, Isaac
Walker, John
Walker, Silvanus
Walker, William
Walkers, Robert
Walkinford, Charles
Wallas, Jesse
Waller, Thomas
Walsh, Walter
Ward, William Jr.
Ward, William Sr.
Warse, Hysom
Watson, Jacob
Watson, William Jr.
Watts, John
Watts, Malachi
Webb, Beaty
Webb, John
Webb, Joseph
Webb, Leonard
Webb, Richard
Webb, Robert
Webb, William
Wed, John
Welch, Henry
Welch, Walter
Wellborn, Thomas
Whit, Ulrich
White, Augustine
White, Charles
White, James
White, James
White, John
White, Joseph
White, William
Whitt, Jacob
Wilborn, Thomas

Thomas Wilborn (or Welborn) one of three signers of a letter on behalf of the Regulators to Gov. Tryon in late summer 1768. (Carruthers, page 127) Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144) The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Wilcox, John

John Wilcox was a Quaker (or former Quaker) businessman from Wilmington who was a close friend and associate of Harmon Husband.  Wilcox was involved in the iron works on the Deep River in what would soon become Chatham County.  (Carruthers, page 118) He interceded with Husband in the summer of 176x to persuade him to stand trial that Fall, though Wilcox would later regret his decision, fearing that Husband would be executed. Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Wilkerson, James Sr.

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Wilkins, Alexander
Wilkins, John
Wilkins, Robert
Wilkins, William
Willet, James
William, John
Williams, Eshmael
Williams, James
Williams, John

The last exchange of letters on May 15, 1771 was a communique from the Regulators, signed by John Williams, Samuel Low, James Wilson, Joseph Scott and Samuel Clark.

Williams, Nehemiah
Williams, Samuel
Williams, Solomon
Williams, Theofilis
Wills, James
Wilson, George
Wilson, James

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143) The last exchange of letters on May 15, 1771 was a communique from the Regulators, signed by John Williams, Samuel Low, James Wilson, Joseph Scott and Samuel Clark.

Wilson, John
Wilson, Thomas
Wineham, Richard
Winkler, John

Following the Battle of Alamance, the following were excluded from Governor Tryon’s 1771 offer of pardon: Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, Samuel Waggoner, Simon Dunn Jr, Abraham Creeson, Benjamin Merrill, James Wilkinson Sr, Edward Smith, John Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Winkler, John Wilcox, Jacob Telfair and Thomas Person. (Carruthers, page 158)

Winter, Daniel
Wood, Nathaniel
Wood, Robert
Woodward, Reuben
Woody, Robert
Word, Thomas
Wren, Prusley
Wright, Philbert
Wright, Thomas
Wyley, Hugh
Yeamons, Stokey
York, Robinson

Indicted for assaulting John Williams during the Hillsborough Riot of 1770. (Carruthers, page 144)

York, Seymour

At the Hillsborough Riot of 1770, the assembled Regulators installed their own Judge and Clerk of Court. While history does not record who presided over this mock court, the Carruthers tells us that clerk was a man named Yorke (page 133), who was likely Seymour or a close relative of him. 

Young, Samuel 

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)

Youngblood, John
Younger, James
Zagur, Joshua

The Rowan County officials attempted to settle matters with the Regulators at a March 1771 meeting which included the following Regulators: James Hunter, John Inyard, William Welborn, Thomas Fluke [Flake], John Cunny, James Wilson, Samuel Waggoner, David Gillespie, James Graham, Henry Wade, Peter Julian, Jeremiah Fields, John Vickery, Samuel Jones & Joshua Zagur. (Carruthers, page 142) At the meeting, the Regulators appointed their delegates for settling the issues at a future meeting: Matthew Locke, Harmon Husband, James Smith, James Hunter, Samuel Young, Thomas Person, John Cain, and James Graham. (Carruthers, page 143)